Combat Modifiers .
Sometimes, you just have to go toe-to-toe in a fight, but you gain usually gain some advantage by seeking a better position, either offensively or defensively. This section cover’s the rules for when you can line up a particularly good attack, or are forced to make a disadvantageous one.
Favorable and unfavorable conditions
Depending on the situation, you may gain a bonus or take penalties on your attack roll. Generally, any situational modifier created by the attacker’s position or tactics applies to the attack roll, while any situational modifier created by the defender’s position or tactics applies to the defender’s AC. You GM judges what bonuses and penalties apply, using Table 9-1 Attack roll modifiers, and Table 9-2 Armour Class Modifiers as a guide.
Suspended Characters: In certain positions or situations, a character becomes, suspended, basically situations where the character’s weight is no longer usually distributed, and movement is somewhat restricted. The following are examples of situations where the character is Suspended:
Hanging Upside Down: when a character is hanging upside down, whether naturally able to do so or tied with a rope from a snare of crows cage, the character is suspended.
Climbing: When climbing, such as along a rock wall or up a knotted rope, the characters weight is distributed along his body, and counts as suspended.
Swinging from object(rope, chandelier, etc.): while moving significantly Vertically or horizontally under power not his own, his weight and movement are restricted by the path of the alternate form of movement, thus he is suspended.
While Suspended, the unusual situation is difficult to maneuver within, and thus causes the character a -2 penalty to his attack rolls when performing a melee attack.
One of the best defenses available is cover. By taking cover behind a tree, a wall, the side of a wagon, or behind a castles battlements, you can protect yourself against attacks, especially ranged attacks, and also from being spotted.
to determine whether your target has cover from your ranged attack, choose a corner of your square. If any line from this corner passes through a square or border or border that blocks line of effect or provides cover, or through a square occupied by a creature, the target has cover (+6 to AC)
When making a melee attack against an adjacent target, your target has cover if any line from your square to your opponents square goes through a wall (even a low wall). When making a melee attack against a target that isn’t adjacent (such as with a reach weapon), use the rules for determining cover from ranged attacks.
Low obstacles and Cover: a low obstacle (such as a wall no higher than half your height) provides cover, but only too creatures within 30 feet (6 squares) of it. The attacker can ignore the cover if he’s closer to the obstacle than his target.
Cover and attacks of
Cover and Reflex Saves: Cover grants you a +3 bonus on Reflex saves against attacks that originate or burst out from a point on the other side of the cover from you, such as a Red Dragon’s breath weapon, or a lightning bolt. Note that spread effects such as fireball, can extend around corners and thus negate this cover bonus.
Cover and Hide Checks: You can use cover to make a Hide check. Without cover, you usually need concealment to make a hide check.
Soft Cover: Creatures, even your enemies, can provide you with cover against ranged attacks, giving you a +6 bonus to AC. However, such soft cover provides no bonus on Reflex saves, nor does soft cover allow you too make a hide check.
Big Creatures and Cover: any creature with a space larger than 5 feet (1 square) determines cover against melee attacks slightly different than smaller creatures do. Such a creature can choose any square that it occupies to determine if an opponent has cover against its melee attacks. Similarly, when making a melee attack against such a creature, you can pick any of the squares it occupies to determine if it has cover against you.
¹: an entangled character also takes a -4 penalty to dexterity, which may affect his attack roll.
²: the defender loses any Dexterity bonus to AC. This bonus doesn’t apply if the target is blinded.
³: Most ranged weapons can’t be used while the attacker is prone, but you can use a crossbow or shuriken at no penalty while prone.
Flanking and Surrounding and Cornering
Many situations relevant to the number of squares surrounding an opponent that are either threatening him or her, or in which the opponent may move affect how easy it is to hit that opponent. These three different situations are called flanking, surrounding, and cornering.
Flanking: when making a melee attack, you get a +2 flanking bonus if your opponent is threatened by a character or creature friendly to youon the opponents opposite border or opposite corner.
When in doubt about whether two friendly characters flank an opponent in the middle, trace an imaginary line between the two friendly character’s centers. If the line passes through opposite borders f the opponents space (including corners of those borders), then the opponent is flanked.
Exception: If a flanker takes up more than 1 square, it gets the flanking bonus if any of the squares it occupies counts as flanking.
Only a creature or character that threatens the defender can help an attacker get a flanking bonus.
Creatures with a reach of 0 feet can’t flank an opponent.
Surrounding: Surrounding is very similar to flanking in that it is based on characters maintaining opposite sides of the same opponent. However, an opponent is only surrounded if flanked by at least a total of 3 different threatening opponents. When three flanking opponents surround a character, they gain a + 3 flanking bonus, in place of the +2 bonus gained from flanking. Normally, surrounding an opponent requires 4 creatures on opposite sides in pairs to surround them, however special circumstances or abilities may allow three characters to accomplish a similar scenario.
(I cant upload the image cause I dont want to pay for LJ, but I did actually make a neat little doodle)
Cornering: Cornering, unlike flanking or surrounding, may actually be performed in a situation of one character versus one opponent. When the opponent is literally in a corner, where at least two horizontal directions are blocked by an impassable object or obstruction (such as a wall, a tree, wagon-side, or cliff) the character gains a +2 flanking bonus on his or her attack rolls. An example of this scenario is shown in the above diagram, and shows that the attacker must be opposite the objects or obstructions preventing the opponents movement.
At higher levels, or with use of spells or abilities, certain obstructions such as walls, or cliffs may no longer be blocking terrain, and if the terrain is not blocking the opponent from moving, then it cannot be used to check whether the opponent is in fact cornered.
¹: The Defender loses any Dexterity Bonus to AC.
²: An Entangled character has a -4 penalty to Dexterity.
³: Frequent abilities modify these values, consider these numbers a Variable Integer.
º: Roll randomly to see which grappling character you strike. That defender loses any Dexterity bonus to AC.
ª: Treat the Defender’s Dexterity as 0 (-5 modifier). Rogues can sneak attack helpless or pinned defenders. See also the Section on Helpless Defenders.
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